Практиките при нормално раждане

  1. World Health Organisation (WHO), 1996, Normal Birth Care: Practical Guide
  2. Enkin, M.W., Kierse, M.J.N.C., Neilson, J., Crowther, C., Duley, L., Hodnett, E. et al (2000). A Guide to Effective Care In Pregnancy and Childbirth,(3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press
  3. NICE Intrapartum care for healthy women and babies. Clinical guideline [CG190] Published date: December 2014
  4. Strategy for Assistance at Normal Childbirth in the National Health System, Ministry of Health and Consumers Affairs, Spain, 2008
  5. Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS), 1996, The Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative

Отложено клампиране на пъпната връв

  1. Care Of The Umbilical Cord: A Review Of The Evidence. 1998. (WHO/RHTMS/98.4)
  2. George M. Morley, MB., CH. B Cord Closure: Can Hasty Clamping Injure the Newborn? July 1998. OBG Management
  3. Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, Otaño L, Ferreira M, Ricci C, Casas O, Giordano D, Lardizábal J., The effect of timing of cord clamping on neonatal venous hematocrit values and clinical outcome at term: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e779-86. Epub 2006 Mar 27.
  4. Hutton EK, Hassan ES. Late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1241-52.
  5. Jaleel R, Deeba F, Khan A. Timing of umbilical cord clamping and neonatal haematological status. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009 Jul;59(7):468-70.
  6. McDonald, S. J., Middleton, P., Dowswell, T. and Morris, P. S. (2014), Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Evid.-Based Child Health, 9: 303–397. doi:10.1002/ebch.1971

Ранен контакт кожа в кожа между майката и бебето

  1. Christensson K, Siles C, Moreno L, Belaustequi A, De La Fuente P, Lagercrantz H, Puyol P, Winberg J. Temperature, metabolic adaptation and crying in healthy full-term newborns cared for skin-to-skin or in a cot. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Jun-Jul;81(6-7):488-93.
  2. Bergström A, Okong P, Ransjö-Arvidson AB. Immediate maternal thermal response to skin-to-skin care of newborn. Acta Paediatr. 2007 May;96(5):655-8.
  3. Moore ER, Bergman N, Anderson GC, Medley N. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD003519. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub4.
  4. Marshall Klaus, Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties, Pediatrics, November 1998, VOLUME 102 / ISSUE Supplement E1


  1. Reveiz L, Gaitán HG, Cuervo LG. Enemas during labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD000330. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000330.pub3.

Избръсване на гениталиите

  1. Basevi V, Lavender T. Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 11. Art.No.: CD001236.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001236.pub2.

Въздържане от храна и течности по време на раждане

  1. Singata M, Tranmer J, Gyte GML. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD003930. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003930.pub3.
  2. O’Reilly SA, Hoyer PJ, Walsh E. Low-risk mothers. Oral intake and emesis in labor. Online J J Nurse Midwifery. 1993 Jul-Aug;38(4):228-35.

Система с течности

  1. Philipson EH, Kalhan SC, Riha MM, Pimentel R. Effects of maternal glucose infusion on fetal acid-base status in human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Oct;157(4 Pt 1):866-73.

Рутинни вагинални прегледи

  1. Downe S, Gyte GML, Dahlen HG, Singata M. Routine vaginal examinations for assessing progress of labour to improve outcomes for women and babies at term. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD010088. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010088.pub2.
  2. Shepherd А, Cheyne H, Kennedy S, McIntosh C, Styles M, Niven The purple line as a measure of labour progress: a longitudinal study. MC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010; 10: 54. Published online 2010 Sep 16. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-54

Постоянен електронен мониторинг на плода

  1. Alfirevic Z, Devane D, Gyte GML. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD006066. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub2.
  2. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). „Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring: Nomenclature, Interpretation, and General Management Principles,“ July 2009, Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Обезболяване на раждането

  1. Jones L, Othman M, Dowswell T, Alfirevic Z, Gates S, Newburn M, Jordan S, Lavender T, Neilson JP. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD009234. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2.

Индукция на раждането

  1. Seyb ST, Berka RJ, Socol ML, Dooley SL. Risk of cesarean delivery with elective induction of labor at term in nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Oct;94(4):600-7.
  2. van Gemund N, Hardeman A, Scherjon SA, Kanhai HH. Intervention rates after elective induction of labor compared to labor with a spontaneous onset. A matched cohort study. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56(3):133-8. Epub 2003 Sep 29.
  3. Combs CA, Singh NB, Khoury JC. Elective induction versus spontaneous labor after sonographic diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;81(4):492-6.
  4. Boulvain M, Stan CM, Irion O. Membrane sweeping for induction of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000451. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000451.pub2.
  5. Hofmeyr GJ, Gülmezoglu AM, Alfirevic Z.Misoprostol for induction of labour: a systematic review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Aug;106(8):798-803.

Стимулация с окситоцин

  1. World Health organization. WHO recomendations for augmentation of labour. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112825/1/9789241507363_eng.pdf
  2. Bell AF, Erickson EN, Carter CS. Beyond labor: the role of natural and synthetic oxytocin in the transition to motherhood. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2014 Jan-Feb;59(1):35-42: quiz 108. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12101.
  3. Fraser W, Vendittelli F, Krauss I, Bréart G. Effects of early augmentation of labour with amniotomy and oxytocin in nulliparous women: a meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Feb;105(2):189-94.


  1. Smyth RMD, Alldred SK, Markham C. Amniotomy for shortening spontaneous labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006167. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006167.pub3.

Прийом на Кристелер

  1. Furrer R, Schäffer L, Kimmich N, Zimmermann R, Haslinger C. Maternal and fetal outcomes after uterine fundal pressure in spontaneous and assisted vaginal deliveries. J Perinat Med. 2016 Oct 1;44(7):767-772. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2015-0101.
  2. Matsuo K, Shiki Y, Yamasaki M, Shimoya K. Use of uterine fundal pressure maneuver at vaginal delivery and risk of severe perineal laceration. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Nov;280(5):781-6. doi: 10.1007/s00404-009-1015-2.


  1. Carroli G, Mignini L. Episiotomy for vaginal birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000081. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000081.pub2.
  2. Klein MC, Gauthier RJ, Jorgensen SH, Robbins JM, Kaczorowski J, Johnson B, Corriveau M, Westreich R, Waghorn K, Gelfand MM, et al. Does episiotomy prevent perineal trauma and pelvic floor relaxation? Curr Clin Trials. 1992 Jul 1;Doc No 10.

Активен мениджмънт на третия период

  1. Westhoff G, Cotter AM, Tolosa JE. Prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD001808. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001808.pub2.

Цезарово сечение

  1. WHO Statement on Cesarean rates 2015 http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/161442/1/WHO_RHR_15.02_eng.pdf?ua=1

Вагинално раждане след цезарово сечение

  1. Guise, J.M., Eden, K., Emeis, C., . . . McDonagh, M. (2010). Vaginal birth after cesarean: New insights. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No.191. (Prepared by the Oregon Health & Science University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10057-I). AHRQ Publication No. 10-E003. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  2. Gerard G Nahum, MD, FACOG, FACS, Krystle Quynh Pham, MD, FACOG. Uterine Rupture in Pregnancy. Medscape, Updated: Jan 14, 2015
  3. Blanchette H, Blanchette M, McCabe J, Vincent S. Is vaginal birth after cesarean safe? Experience at a community hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jun;184(7):1478-84.
  4. Lieberman E, Ernst EK, Rooks JP, Stapleton S, Flamm B. Results of the national study of vaginal birth after cesarean in birth centers. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):933-42.
  5. Durnwald C, Mercer B.Vaginal birth after Cesarean delivery: predicting success, risks of failure. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004 Jun;15(6):388-93.
  6. Lydon-Rochelle M, Holt VL, Easterling TR, Martin DP. Risk of uterine rupture during labor among women with a prior cesarean delivery. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 5;345(1):3-8.
  7. Bruce L. Flamm. Birth after Cesarean: the medical facts. Prentice Hall Press, New York. 1990. ISBN 0-13-080102-X
  8. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SCOG). Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous caesarean birth. Number 155, February 2015. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 Jun;89 (3):319-31.
  9. Revicky V, Muralidhar A, Mukhopadhyay S, Mahmood T. A Case Series of Uterine Rupture: Lessons to be Learned for Future Clinical Practice. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2012 Dec; 62(6): 665–673. Published online 2013 Jan 16. doi: 1007/s13224-012-0328-4. PMCID: PMC3575904

Рутинни процедури на бебето след раждането

  1. World Health Organisation (WHO) Recommendations on newborn health http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/guidelines-recommendations-newborn-health.pdf
  2. Kelleher J, Bhat R, Salas AA, Addis D, Mills EC, Mallick H, et al. Oronasopharyngeal suction versus wiping of the mouth and nose at birth: a randomised equivalency trial. The Lancet. Volume 382, Issue 9889, 27 July–2 August 2013, Pages 326–330
  3. Preer G, Pisegna JM, Cook JT, Henri AM, Philipp BL. Delaying the bath and in-hospital breastfeeding rates. Breastfeed Med. 2013 Dec;8(6):485-90. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2012.0158. Epub 2013 May 2.

Акушерски модел на грижи

  1. Sandall J, Soltani H, Gates S, Shennan A, Devane D. Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004667. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004667.pub5.

Продължителна подкрепа по време на раждане (дула)

  1. Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD003766. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.pub5.
  2. Scott KD, Klaus P, Klaus M. The Obstetrical and Postpartum Benefits of Continuous Support during Childbirth. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine. May 2009, 8(10): 1257-1264. doi:10.1089/jwh.1.1999.8.1257.
  3. A randomized controlled trial of continuous labor support for middle-class couples: effect on cesarean delivery rates, McGrath SK, Kennell JH (2008) Birth (Berkeley, Calif) Vol 35(2):92-97
  4. Landry SH, McGrath S, Kennell JH, Martin S, Steelman L. The Effect of Doula Support During Labor on Mother-Infant Interaction at 2 Months. Pediatric Research (1998) 43, 13–13; doi:10.1203/00006450-199804001-00083

Водно раждане

  1. Cluett ER, Burns E. Immersion in water in labour and birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000111. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub3.

Домашно раждане

  1. Johnson KC, Daviss BA, Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: large prospective study in North America, BMJ 2005; 330 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7505.1416 (Published 16 June 2005)
  2. Cheyney, M., Bovbjerg, M., Everson, C., Gordon, W., Hannibal, D. and Vedam, S. (2014), Outcomes of Care for 16,924 Planned Home Births in the United States: The Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 59: 17–27. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12172

Раждане в родилен център

  1. Stapleton, S. R., Osborne, C. and Illuzzi, J. (2013), Outcomes of care in birth centers:

demonstration of a durable model. Demonstration of a Durable Model. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 58: 3–14. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12003